In 1866, Austria lost the war with Prussia and several Italian states. Francis Joseph I was urged to solve the internal problems of his realm and was well-advised to provide a substantial rise to the Hungarian nobility, which had stayed in passive resistance to him after the crushed Hungarian revolution of 1848 and 1849. By the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich), the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria as two separate entities joined together on an equal basis to form the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Thus the former Habsburg-ruled lands were restructured into a dual union which shared a monarch and a common army, navy and foreign policy.
R. Hofburgtheater and the I. Hofoperntheater; the Imperial Crypt below the Capuchin Church and Monastery in Vienna, where three of the four emperors of Austria have been buried (Charles I was buried on Madeira, his last exile). Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (Kaisertum Österreich) from 1804 to 1867 consisted of the Habsburg lands as a whole, leaving each land its special definition as kingdom (e.
A coronation ceremony was never established; the heir to the throne became emperor the moment his predecessor died or abdicated. The symbol of the Austrian Emperor was the dynasty's private crown dating back to Rudolf II (r. 1576–1612), (called Rudolfinische Hauskrone by the experts). Titles of the emperor The Austrian emperors had an extensive list of titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs. The grand title of the emperor of Austria had been changed several times: by a patent of 1 August 1804, by a court office decree from 22 August 1836, by an Imperial court ministry decree of 6 January 1867 and finally by a letter of 12 December 1867.
Charles I (11 November 1918 – 1 April 1922) Otto von Habsburg (1 April 1922 – 1 January 2007) Karl von Habsburg (1 January 2007 – present) Heir apparent: Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg See also Austrian nobility Holy Roman Emperor List of Austrian consorts List of rulers of Austria Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 List of heads of government under Austrian Emperors References ^ "Imperial Standard of Austria, Flags of the World". ^ Allerhöchste Pragmatikal-Verordnung vom 11.
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In 1805, an Austrian-led army suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz and the victorious Napoleon proceeded to dismantle the old Reich (which at this time was only a powerless confederation) by motivating or pressuring several German princes to enter the separate Confederation of the Rhine with their lands in July. This led Francis II/I on 6 August 1806 to declare the Reich dissolved and to lay down the Imperial Crown created in the second half of the 10th century (today displayed at the Treasury of Hofburg Palace in Vienna).  From 1806 onwards, Francis was Emperor of Austria only. He had three successors—Ferdinand I, Francis Joseph I and Charles I—before the Empire broke apart in 1918.
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August 1804. In: Otto Posse: Die Siegel der Deutschen Kaiser und Könige. (The Seals of German Emperors and Kings), tom. 5, attachment 2, p. 249 ^ Erklärung des Kaisers Franz II. über die Niederlegung der deutschen Kaiserkrone, in: Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der Deutschen Reichsverfassung in Mittelalter und Neuzeit (Collection of Sources to the History of the Constitution of the German Reich), edited by Karl Zeumer, p.
He never shook hands with visitors; in letters he never addressed his subjects as "Sir" or "Mr. " (Herr). The Emperor's court managed the following institutions: the Imperial Palace in Vienna (Hofburg); each of the four Emperors of Austria chose his living and working rooms in another part of this huge palace; the Imperial Treasury at Hofburg, where the Habsburgs' crown insignia were kept; the Imperial Court Library, today Austrian National Library Imperial residences outside Vienna, like Schönbrunn Palace (the area was included into the Vienna city area in 1892) and Laxenburg Palace; the court's collection of carriages (today Wagenburg at Schönbrunn Palace Gardens); the I.
Austria-Hungary disintegrated at the end of World War I in 1918, when the Austrian lands established their independence. Bohemia and Moravia in the newly created Czechoslovakia, Galicia joined Poland, while Bukovina became a part of Romania. Carniola and Dalmatia joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Other territories were annexed by Italy (South Tyrol, Trieste and Istria). Yet the last Emperor, Charles I, used his imperial title until the end of his life.
Francis Joseph's only son Rudolf committed suicide in 1889, Francis Joseph's brother Karl Ludwig died in 1896. Karl Ludwig's son Franz Ferdinand became heir presumptive to the throne. He was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914; due to his morganatic marriage, his son had no rights to the throne. At this time his younger brother Otto Franz had already died, which made Otto's son Charles the new heir presumptive to the throne, to which he acceded in 1916 as Charles I, upon the death of Francis Joseph I.
The Kingdom of Hungary, due to measures enacted during peace proceedings after the Great War and having terminated the 1867 compromise by 31 October 1918, similarly broke apart. Abbreviations of common and non common institutions The term Kaiserlich und Königlich (k. k., spoken /ka ʔʊnt ka/, meaning "Imperial and Royal") was decreed in a letter of 17 October 1889 for the army, the navy and the institutions shared by both parts of the monarchy.  Institutions of Cisleithania used the term Kaiserlich-Königlich (K. K., meaning "Imperial Royal", e. g. K. österreichische Staatsbahnen, Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways). Emperors of Austria (1804–1918) NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageFrancis I12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835 (aged 67)11 August 18042 March 1835(30 years, 203 days)The last Holy Roman Emperor; Son of Leopold IIHabsburg-LorraineFerdinand I19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875 (aged 82)2 March 18352 December 1848(abdicated)(13 years, 275 days)Son of Francis IHabsburg-LorraineFrancis Joseph I18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916 (aged 86)2 December 184821 November 1916(67 years, 355 days)Nephew of Ferdinand I; grandson of Francis IHabsburg-LorraineCharles Ithe Blessed17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922 (aged 34)21 November 191611 November 1918(resigned)(1 year, 355 days)Grand-Nephew of Francis Joseph I; great-great-grandson of Francis IHabsburg-Lorraine Succession to the throne The heir apparent to the throne bore the title of Crown Prince (Kronprinz); heirs presumptive were called Thronfolger, in addition to their title of archduke.
Emperor of Austria - WikipediaEmperor of AustriaKaiser von Österreich Kaiser von Oesterreich Pre-1918 SpellingImperialCoat of arms (until 1915)Last to reignCharles I21 November 1916 – 11 November 1918DetailsStyleHis Imperial MajestyFirst monarchFrancis ILast monarchCharles IFormation11 August 1804Abolition11 November 1918ResidenceHofburg (main residence)Schönbrunn (summer residence)AppointerHereditaryPretender(s)Karl von Habsburg Imperial Standard (From 1867 to 1915) The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918.
In this moment Charles I's son, four-year-old Otto became the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary. He declared himself a loyal citizen of the Republic of Austria in 1961. Emperor Franz Joseph I and his great grand-nephew and second-in-line to the throne Otto von Habsburg, in 1914 Heads of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (since 1918) Charles I did not see himself as a pretender but as the monarch of Austria, while the Habsburg Law of the Republic of Austria of 1919 called him "the former bearer of the crown" (der ehemalige Träger der Krone). His son Otto von Habsburg, who had used the title Archduke of Austria in his earlier life outside of Austria, declared himself a loyal citizen of the Republic in order to be allowed to enter Austria; from 1961 onwards he no longer considered himself pretender. Otto's son Karl von Habsburg has never pretended to be the rightful monarch of Austria.
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To manage the political implications of the Imperial house after 1867 the Emperor and King appointed the k. u. k. Minister des kaiserlichen und königlichen Hauses und des Äußeren (the I. & R. Minister of the Imperial and Royal House and of the Exterior), one of the three ministers common to Austria and Hungary. Under Francis I, Klemens von Metternich had covered these and many other agenda, bearing the title Haus-, Hof- und Staatskanzler (Chancellor of the House, the Court and the State). The Imperial Court The Emperor's household, his personal officers and the premises where they worked were called Hof ("court").
Francis I was followed by Ferdinand Charles, (later Ferdinand I). In the wake of the 1848 revolutions, the empire's existence was in danger. The Habsburg family tried a new start with a new emperor: Ferdinand I was urged to hand over government on 2 December 1848. He then moved to Hradcany Castle in Prague and, without laying down his imperial title, lived there privately until his death in 1875.  As Ferdinand I had no sons, his brother Francis Charles would have become emperor, but was persuaded by his wife to pass over the right of succession to their son, Francis Joseph. He accepted the duty of the Emperor of Austria without having been Crown Prince or Thronfolger before.